Omaha System Print

Original Citation – Martin KS. A client classification system adaptable for computerization. Nursing Outlook, 1982, November/December: 30(9): 515-517.

Contact Information
Karen S. Martin
This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Price & Availability – Omaha System terms, definitions, and codes exist in the public domain. Full source attribution required. Please see instrument website to view and download instrument.

Brief Description of Instrument – The Omaha System consists of three parts that are to be used together: 1) Problem Classification Scheme (client assessment); 2) Intervention Scheme (service delivery); 3) Problem Rating Scale for Outcomes (client change/evaluation).

Scale Format – Problem Classification Scheme consists of domains, problems, modifiers and signs/systems. Intervention Scheme consists of categories, targets, and client-specific infromation. Both Problem Classification Scheme and Intervention Scheme are orgnized following a taxonomic structure with terms arranged from general to specific levels of abstraction. Problem Rating Scale for Outcomes - Three 5-point Likert-type rating scale.

Factors and Norms – Problem Classification Scheme includes the following 4 domains: 1) Environmental, 2) Psychosocial, 3) Physiological, 4) Health Related Behaviours. Intervention Scheme include the following 4 categories: 1) Teaching, 2) Guidance and counselling, 3) Treatments and Procedures, 4) Case Managment and Surveillance. Problem Rating Scale for Outcomes includes 3 concepts: 1) Knowledge, 2) Behaviour, 3) Status.

Content & Face Validity – Developed and refined through many studies.

Strengths – Used extenstively in nursing research. Found to be a valid and reliable clinical information system.

Published APN Studies using instrument – Many references exist. Please see instrument website for more details.
Barton AJ, Gilbert L, Erickson V, Baramee J, Sowers D, Robertson KJ. A guide to assist nurse practitioners with standardized nursing language. Comput Inform Nurs. 2003 May-Jun;21(3):128-33; quiz 134-5. View in PubMed
Barton AJ, Baramee J, Sowers D, Robertson KJ. Articulating the value-added dimension of NP care. Nurse Pract. 2003 Dec;28(12):34-40.View in PubMed
Brooten D, Naylor MD, York R, Brown LP, Munro BH, Hollingsworth AO, Cohen SM, Finkler S, Deatrick J, Youngblut JM. Lessons learned from testing the quality cost model of Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) transitional care. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2002;34(4):369-75.View in PubMed.
Brooten D, Youngblut JM, Deatrick J, Naylor M, York R. Patient problems, advanced practice nurse (APN) interventions, time and contacts among five patient groups. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2003;35(1):73-9. View in PubMed.
Brooten D, Youngblut JM, Kutcher J, Bobo C. Quality and the nursing workforce: APNs, patient outcomes and health care costs. Nurs Outlook. 2004 Jan-Feb;52(1):45-52. View in PubMed.
Brooten D, Youngblut JM, Donahue D, Hamilton M, Hannan J, Felber Neff D. Women with high-risk pregnancies, problems, and APN interventions. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2007;39(4):349-57. View in PubMed.
Dellasega C, Zerbe TM. Caregivers of frail rural older adults. Effects of an advanced practice nursing intervention. J Gerontol Nurs. 2002 Oct;28(10):40-9. View in PubMed.
Jenkins ML. Toward national comparable nurse practitioner data: proposed data elements, rationale, and methods. J Biomed Inform. 2003 Aug-Oct;36(4-5):342-50. View in PubMed.
Mahn VA, Zazworksky D. The advanced practice nurse case manager. In AB Hamric, JA Spross, CM Hanson (Eds.), Advanced Nursing Practice: An Integrated Approach (2nd ed.) 2000;549-606. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Marek KD, Jenkins ML, Stringer M, Brooten D, Alexander GL. Classifying perinatal advanced practice data with the Omaha System. Home Health Care Management and Practice, 2004;16(3), 214-221.
Naylor MD, Bowles KH, Brooten D. Patient problems and advanced practice nurse interventions during transitional care. Public Health Nurs. 2000 Mar-Apr;17(2):94-102. View in PubMed.
Wong FK, Chung LC. Establishing a definition for a nurse-led clinic: structure, process, and outcome. J Adv Nurs. 2006 Feb;53(3):358-69. View in PubMed.

Related Methods Articles (Not Reviewed) – Martin KS. (2005). The Omaha System: A Key to practice, documentation, and information management. St. Louis: Elsevier.