Original Citation - Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Price & Availability - No fee for educational and professional research. Cite original citation. For a copy of the tool, please see instrument website.
Brief Description of Instrument - Measure of global self-esteem. It consists of 10 statements related to overall feelings of self-worth or self-acceptance.
Administration Time - 2 to 3 minutes.
Scale Format - Likert type scale, ranging from strongly agree - strongly disagree. 10 items.
Administration Technique - Self-administered questionnaire.
Scoring and Interpretation - Scores are calculated as follows: For items 1, 2, 4, 6, 7: strongly agree=3, agree=2, disagree=1, strongly disagree=0. For items 3, 5, 8, 9, 10: strongly agree=0, agree=1, disagree=2, strongly disagree=3. The scale score ranges from 0-30, a higher score denotes higher self-esteem.
Factors and Norms - Studies have demonstrated both a unidimensional and a two-factor (self-confidence and self-deprecation) structure to the scale.
Test-retest Reliability - Correlations range from .82 to .88.
Internal Consistency - Cronbach's alpha range from .77 to .88.
Strengths - The SES is widely used. Researchers will be able to search literature for established norms in areas of interest.
Notes for Consideration - Various translations are available, again, search literature and contact article authors directly.
Published APN Studies Using Instrument - Comprehensive discharge planning for the hospitalized elderly. A randomized clinical trial. Naylor M, Brooten D, Jones R, Lavizzo-Mourey R, Mezey M, Pauly M. Ann Intern Med. 1994 Jun 15;120(12):999-1006. View in PubMed
Related Methods Articles (Not Reviewed) - Please see instrument website for a list of references.